The sheer symbolism of what’s in a man’s pants may be a factor. As Harrison Pope and Katharine Phillips write in their book on male body obsessions, The Adonis Complex, genitals have been equated with “virility, procreative potency, and power” throughout history. This has been compounded by an apparent rise in general masculine vanity. Figures from the British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons show the total number of male procedures doubled between 2005 and 2015, with breast reduction, rhinoplasty and neck lifts especially popular. For those in need of rejuvenation, surgery is cheaper and more easily available than ever.
There are several surgical treatments, most of which carry a risk of significant complications. Procedures by unlicensed surgeons can lead to serious complications. Risky surgical treatments include subcutaneous fat injection, division of the suspensory ligament, and the injection of dermal fillers, silicone gel, or PMMA. The American Urological Association (AUA) and the Urology Care Foundation "consider subcutaneous fat injection for increasing penile girth to be a procedure which has not been shown to be safe or efficacious. The AUA also considers the division of the suspensory ligament of the penis for increasing penile length in adults to be a procedure which has not been shown to be safe or efficacious." Dermal fillers are also not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the penis.